Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by rheumatic fever. The heart valve is damaged by a disease process that generally begins with a strep throat caused by bacteria called Streptococcus, and may eventually cause rheumatic fever.
Symptoms may include:
- Joint inflammation - including swelling, tenderness, and redness over multiple joints. The joints affected are usually the larger joints in the knees or ankles. The inflammation "moves" from one joint to another over several days.
- Small nodules or hard, round bumps under the skin.
- A change in your child's neuromuscular movements (this is usually noted by a change in your child's handwriting and may also include jerky movements).
- Rash (a pink rash with odd edges that is usually seen on the trunk of the body or arms and legs).
- Weight loss.
- Stomach pains.
Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Rheumatic Heart Disease
Risk for Impaired Gas Exchange related to the accumulation of blood in the lungs due to increased atrial filling
Goal: risk for impaired gas does not occur
- Demonstrating adequate ventilation and oxygenation of the tissue, indicated by blood gas analysis / oximetry in the normal range and free of symptoms of respiratory distress.
- Participate in a treatment program within the ability / situation.
Intervention and rationale:
1. Auscultation of breath sounds, note: crackles, mengii.
2. Instruct the patient to cough effectively, breathing deeply.
3. Maintain a semi-Fowler position, chock the hand with a pillow if possible
4. Collaboration in the provision of supplemental oxygen as indicated.
5. Collaboration for the examination of blood gas analysis.
6. Collaboration for the administration of diuretics.
7. Collaboration for the administration of bronchodilator drugs.
1. Stating pulmonary congestion / collecting secretions indicate the need for further intervention.
2. Clearing the airway and facilitate the flow of oxygen.
3. Lowering the oxygen consumption / needs and enhance maximum lung expansion.
4. Increasing alveolar oxygen concentration, which can improve / lower tissue hypoxemia.
5. Can be severe hypoxemia during pulmonary edema.
6. Lowers alveolar congestion, improve gas exchange.
7. Increasing the flow of oxygen to dilate small airways and emit a mild diuretic effect to reduce pulmonary congestion.